Architecture: Old & New

Examples of Architecture Styles
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1) Victorian -- The Victorian Era (mid to late 19th Century) saw a return of many architectural styles including Gothic Revival, Tudor and Romanesque as well as influences from Asia and the Middle East. During the industrial revolution, many homes were built in the Victorian style as part of the housing boom. Key features include the ‘Dollhouse’ effect with elaborate trim, sash windows, bay windows, imposing 2-3 stories, asymmetrical shape, a steep Mansard roof, wrap-around porches, bright colours.
Where to see it: 
Many houses in the UK, the US and Australia.
2) Islamic -- Beginning in the Middle East in the 7th century Islamic architecture varies greatly depending on the region such as Persia North Africa and Spain. A Mosque is the best example of Islamic styles including the pointed arches, domes and courtyards. Decoration on flat surfaces take priority as the Koran forbids three-dimensional representations. Key features include the horseshoe arch, geometric designs, more focus on the enclosed spaces and interior rather than exterior, perforated screens.
Where to see it:  Hui Mosque in China.
3) Romanesque -- Also known as Norman Architecture it emerged across Europe in the late 10th Century. The most famous feature is the rounded arch, typically found in the Roman-style churches, of which are the main survivors of the period. Key features include rounded arches, repetition of rows of round-headed arches, stylised floral and foliage stone decorations and cable moldings around doors in the style of twisted rope.
Where to see it:  Porto Cathedral, Portugal
4) Baroque -- Originating in the late 16th century in Italy, Baroque was a departure from the more formal Romanesque style in that it was more emotive, ‘showy’ and aimed to appeal to the senses. As part of the Counter-Reformation the architecture was an attempt to celebrate the Catholic state. Key features include broken pediments, ‘broken’ at their apex, sometimes with a cresting ornament placed in the centre, elaborate ornamentation, paired columns, convex and concave walls.
Where to see it: Palace of Versailles
5) Tudor -- Tudor architecture is the final style from the medieval period in England between the 1400s-1600s. While the Tudor Arch or the Four-Centred Arch is the distinguishing feature most people would recognise the timber-framed houses of the Tudor era. Key features include thatched roof, casement windows (diamond-shaped glass panels with lead castings), masonry chimneys, elaborate doorways.
Where to see it:  Anne Hathaway’s cottage, Warwickshire, England.
6) Bauhaus -- Originally an art school in Germany in the early 1900s the Bauhaus movement held the idea that all art and technology would be unified under the idea of simplistic design and mass-production. Rejecting decorative details the designs favoured function. Flat roofs and cubic shapes were key. The Bauhaus principles of cubic shapes and angles can be seen in the modernist designs. Key feature include cubic shapes, primary colours of red, blue and yellow, open floor plans, flat roofs, steel frames, glass curtain walls.
Where to see it:   Dessau, Germany
7) Neo-classical -- Considered a response to Baroque and Rococo, Neo-classicism emerged in the mid 18th Century and aimed to bring back a nobility and grandeur to architecture. Inspiration was taken from the classic styles of Ancient Greek and Roman buildings and design. Simplicity and symmetry were the core values. Key features include grandeur scale, blank walls, excessive use of columns, free-standing columns, large buildings, clean lines.
Where to see it: Casino Marino, Malahide.
8) Renaissance -- Influenced by classical styles, the Renaissance style appeared in Italy during the 15th Century and was characterised by harmony, clarity and strength. The designs were intended to reflect the elegance and ideals of domestic life and clues were taken from the Roman ruins. Key features include square buildings, flat ceilings, classical motifs, arches and domes, Roman-type columns, enclosed courtyards, arcades of vaulted bays.
Where to see it: St Peter’s Basilica, Rome

Architecture:

...  the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends. Although these two ends may be distinguished, they cannot be separated, and the relative weight given to each can vary widely. Because every society—whether highly developed or not, settled or nomadic—has a spatial relationship to the natural world and to other societies, the structures they produce reveal much about their environment (including climate and weather), history, ceremonies, and artistic sensibility, as well as many aspects of daily life. 

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